Alternative strategy for manufacturing of all-solid-state reference electrodes for potentiometry
Abstract. This paper presents an alternative strategy for manufacturing solid-state reference electrodes based on particles of graphite/silver/silver chloride synthesized by electroless deposition of metallic silver and silver chloride on graphite powder. Two kinds of reference electrodes were manufactured by mixing these particles with epoxy resin and hardener: quasi-reference and all-solid-state containing salts of alkaline or alkaline earth metals. All-solid-state reference electrodes can be sterilized with high-pressure saturated steam at 394.15 K (121 °C) using an autoclave. These electrodes presented a stable potential between pH 2 and 11. The electrode surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and showed the presence of silver and salt particles. The size of the silver particles was less than 2.5 μm. We successfully applied the all-solid state reference electrodes in potentiometric cells to measure pH and potassium ions in complex matrix by direct potentiometry and L-ascorbic acid by potentiometric titration.