Articles | Volume 5, issue 2
Regular research article 13 Jul 2016
Regular research article | 13 Jul 2016
Employing electro-mechanical analogies for co-resonantly coupled cantilever sensors
Julia Körner et al.
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Helmut Budzier and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 10, 179–184,Short summary
In thermometry, the displayed temperature value of an object depends on the size of the object. This behaviour, the size-of-source effect, might be a major cause of measurement uncertainty in a thermoscene. The influence of diffraction and digitization can be described advantageously with the modulation transfer function. Especially with very small objects the displayed temperatures are too low. When imaging large objects, not only the edge areas are affected, but also the entire image.
Daniela Franke and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 10, 93–100,
Markus Stoehr, Gerald Gerlach, Thomas Härtling, and Stephan Schoenfelder
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 209–217,Short summary
Photoelasticity is considered a useful measurement tool for non-destructive and contactless determination of mechanical stresses or strains in the production of silicon wafers. In this work, a detailed derivation for the anisotropic stress-optic law is presented, and the corresponding stress-optical parameters are measured.
Tobias Ott and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 79–87,
Nikolai Gulnizkij and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 1–6,Short summary
We describe a mechanical model based on the beam theory for the development of a beam-like sensor switch with switching hysteresis for humidity sensing. The hydrogel swelling provides the mechanical energy to deflect the partly hydrogel-covered bending beam via the bimorph effect. From the model, we calculate the deflection of a beam-like sensor switch with and without a switching hysteresis. A beam-like sensor switch was manufactured, and the switching hysteresis was successfully demonstrated.
Margarita Guenther, Falko Altenkirch, Kai Ostermann, Gerhard Rödel, Ingo Tobehn-Steinhäuser, Steffen Herbst, Stefan Görlandt, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 215–222,Short summary
In this work, genetically modified cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 were confined in a four-chamber microfluidic cell, providing an optical monitoring of the cell behaviour and their supply with the nutrients. The measurements of the time-dependent fluorescence intensity were performed with different concentrations of the drug diclofenac, and the sensitivity of yeast cells to diclofenac was demonstrated. Cell viability was monitored by simultaneous impedance recording.
Jan Erfkamp, Margarita Guenther, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 219–226,Short summary
We describe a low-cost sensor for the detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. The reversible swelling of alcohol-sensitive hydrogels depends on the ethanol concentration. The resulting swelling pressure was detected via piezoresistive sensors. We have tested the swelling properties of the hydrogel (e.g. swelling kinetics, selectivity to other alcohols). Furthermore, the first sensor set-ups were tested and the reversibility of the hydrogel-based piezoresistive sensor was demonstrated.
Christoph Kroh, Roland Wuchrer, Margarita Günther, Thomas Härtling, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 51–55,Short summary
The inline monitoring of parameters in aqueous liquids is facing an increasing demand in many application areas. In this paper we report on an optical monitoring of the pH value in liquids by means of a sensitive hydrogel, which can be applied in the physiological range. Our results indicate a nearly linear dependency between pH value and hydrogel swelling. Furthermore, we show an improvement of the response time by a factor of 2 in comparison to other systems exploiting this kind of hydrogel.
Ulrike Schmidt, Carola Jorsch, Margarita Guenther, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 409–417,
Marisa Rio, Sharanya Bola, Richard H. W. Funk, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 237–243,Short summary
Endogeneous electric fields (EFs) affect a wide range of cellular functions such as migration, wound healing and regeneration. Similar results were observed when external EFs are applied. To date, the phenomenon of electrotaxis has been studied only in homogeneous EF environments. Here, we report on the construction and fabrication of a microfluidic biochip as well as first results for stimulation of cells with stationary, non-homogeneous EFs.
Carola Jorsch, Ulrike Schmidt, David Ulkoski, Carmen Scholz, Margarita Guenther, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 229–235,
Agnes Eydam, Gunnar Suchaneck, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 165–170,Short summary
Piezoelectric devices are characterized non-destructively to ensure their functionality. The material is heated by laser diodes. The resulting temperature changes lead to a pyroelectric current. Analytical and numerical finite element models describe the temperature distribution and the current in frequency and time domain. Modelling and experimental results are compared for piezoelectric plates and integrated sensors and actuators.
M. Windisch, K.-J. Eichhorn, J. Lienig, G. Gerlach, and L. Schulze
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 39–53,Short summary
Hydrogels are swellable polymers, which exhibit superior sensor properties. However, the exploitation of these properties for innovative measurement technology has been prevented by the lack of a manufacturing technique for thin hydogel films that suits industrial needs. We suggest a paradigm change from the current recipe-driven sensor manufacturing to a specification-driven one. Our contributions are optimized processes for a controllable film formation and thermal curing of the hydrogels.
A. Tempelhahn, H. Budzier, V. Krause, and G. Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 9–16,Short summary
Infrared cameras based on microbolometer focal plane arrays (FPAs) are the most widely used cameras in thermography. For acceptable measurement uncertainty values, the disturbing influences of changing ambient temperature have to be considered. We propose a TEC-less and shutter-less correction approach based on additional temperature measurements inside the IR camera. The effects on the pixel responsivity and offset voltage are considered separately.
T. Ott, M. Schossig, V. Norkus, and G. Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 313–319,
H. Budzier and G. Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 187–197,
U. Marschner, G. Gerlach, E. Starke, and A. Lenk
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 3, 187–211,
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Sensor principles and phenomena: Mechanical and inertial sensorsCreep adjustment of strain gauges based on granular NiCr-carbon thin filmsA tactile sensor based on magneto-sensitive elastomer to determine the position of an indentationNovel method to reduce the transverse sensitivity of granular thin film strain gauges by modification of strain transferMulti-parameter sensing using thickness shear mode (TSM) resonators – a feasibility analysisCylinder pressure sensors for smart combustion controlFlexible piezoresistive sensor matrix based on a carbon nanotube PDMS composite for dynamic pressure distribution measurementStatic behavior of weighing cellsMeasuring the wheel-rail forces of a roller coasterFrequency response and self-noise of the MET hydrophone3-D-printed smart screw: functionalization during additive fabricationOffset stable piezoresistive high-temperature pressure sensors based on siliconSilicon micro-levers and a multilayer graphene membrane studied via laser photoacoustic detectionThin film sensors for measuring small forcesCapacitive strain gauges on flexible polymer substrates for wireless, intelligent systemsUltrasound-based density determination via buffer rod techniques: a reviewDriving modes and material stability of a double membrane rheometer and density sensorCompensation method in sensor technology: a system-based description
Maximilian Mathis, Dennis Vollberg, Matthäus Langosch, Dirk Göttel, Angela Lellig, and Günter Schultes
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 10, 53–61,Short summary
NiCr-carbon thin-film strain gauges offer the outstanding characteristic of a very high strain sensitivity. This can be very advantageous for many high-precision mechanical sensors like load cells. A downside of sensors based on these NiCr-carbon strain gauges is a rather large creep error, meaning reversible signal deviations at a constant load. We present two applicable methods for adjustment of the creep error: a modification of the film composition and a modification of the strain transfer.
Simon Gast and Klaus Zimmermann
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 319–326,Short summary
In this paper, we present a tactile sensor based on the interaction of coils with a magnetic elastomer. The first experimental approach is sampling the sensor with indentations of constant depth at different positions. A mathematical model is used to reproduce the data. Afterwards, this model is applied to random indentations at the same depth. As a result, we provide conceptual proof for position determination in one direction as a basis for a refined sensor design and further model approaches.
Maximilian Mathis, Dennis Vollberg, Matthäus Langosch, Dirk Göttel, Angela Lellig, and Günter Schultes
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 219–226,Short summary
This paper introduces a new method to drastically reduce the anisotropic strain sensitivity of granular thin film strain gauges. As a result, these improved strain gauges produce a much higher sensor signal when used for force transducers with biaxial strain fields. This gauge type is also more advantageous for uniaxial stress measurements. The method is based on the creation of a certain topographic structure of the strain gauges; in our case, this was realized by a picosecond laser system.
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 133–147,Short summary
Multi-parameter sensing is examined for thickness shear mode resonators that are in mechanical contact with thin films and half-spaces on both sides. A formula is derived that delivers insight into a set of material and geometry parameters accessible by measurement. Further analysis addresses the problem of accuracy of extracted parameters at a given experimental uncertainty. The demonstrated procedure is suitable for developing experimental strategy for highly efficient multi-parameter sensing.
Dennis Vollberg, Dennis Wachter, Thomas Kuberczyk, and Günter Schultes
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 75–85,Short summary
The basis of our work presented in this paper stems from the research on new materials, especially temperature-stable thin films that transform strain into a resistance change very effectively, allowing higher sensitivity and higher operating temperatures. Different sensor concepts for time-resolved cylinder pressure monitoring of combustion engines are realized and evaluated. Reliable sensors with a minimum of internal components are provided.
Rajarajan Ramalingame, Zheng Hu, Carina Gerlach, Dhivakar Rajendran, Tatiana Zubkova, Reinhard Baumann, and Olfa Kanoun
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 1–7,Short summary
An advanced-material-based thin, flexible sensor mat has been synthesized to record and visualize both the position and pressure of applied load. Such a pressure measurement system bears great potential in human health monitoring applications like long-term patient monitoring mattresses or insoles for gait monitoring.
Maximilian Darnieder, Markus Pabst, Ronny Wenig, Lena Zentner, René Theska, and Thomas Fröhlich
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 587–600,
Andreas Simonis and Christian Schindler
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 469–479,
Dmitry L. Zaitsev, Svetlana Y. Avdyukhina, Maksim A. Ryzhkov, Iliya Evseev, Egor V. Egorov, and Vadim M. Agafonov
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 443–452,Short summary
An electrochemical hydrophone based on the principles of molecular electronic transfer (MET) is described. The paper presents theoretical and experimental results for the sensitivity and the level of self-noise determination for METH in the frequency range of 0.02–200 Hz, which determines the fields of acceptance of the devices being developed. An experimental model has been developed by using a force-balancing feedback. Different methods and techniques for its calibration have been developed.
Daniel Gräbner, Simon Dödtmann, Gerrit Dumstorff, and Frieder Lucklum
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 143–151,Short summary
We combine two modern trends in component fabrication, namely, the integration of sensors into machine parts and the 3-D-printing technology, which is rapidly emerging in the fabrication of standardized and customized components and prototypes. We present a 3-D-printed ‘smart’ screw with an integrated strain gauge. The signal of the sensor can be used to monitor the fastening process of the screw as well as the reduction in strength of the screw joint over time.
Robert Täschner, Erik Hiller, and Michael Blech
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 197–203,Short summary
The exploitation of new application fields and the drive to size reduction even in highly stable pressure sensing systems makes the extension of the operating temperature range of the microelectromechanical sensors (MEMS) essential. For this reason, a silicon-based pressure sensor with an application temperature ranging up to 300 °C and the associated manufacturing technology was developed. The evolved sensor has an excellent stability and is uncomplicated to mount due to its stress insensitivity.
Z. Zelinger, P. Janda, J. Suchánek, M. Dostál, P. Kubát, V. Nevrlý, P. Bitala, and S. Civiš
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 103–109,Short summary
We tested two types of home-made sensing elements – four coupled silicon micro-levers and a multilayer graphene membrane – which have the potential to further enhance the sensitivity of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. Graphene sheets possess outstanding electromechanical properties and demonstrate impressive sensitivity as mass detectors. Their mechanical properties make them suitable for use as micro-/nano-levers or membranes, which could function as extremely sensitive pressure sensors.
F. Schmaljohann, D. Hagedorn, and F. Löffler
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 91–95,
R. Zeiser, T. Fellner, and J. Wilde
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 3, 77–86,
S. Hoche, M. A. Hussein, and T. Becker
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 2, 103–125,
B. Weiss, M. Heinisch, E. K. Reichel, and B. Jakoby
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 2, 19–26,
V. Schulz, G. Gerlach, and K. Röbenack
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 1, 5–27,
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The presented work gives insight into the behaviour of co-resonantly coupled oscillating cantilever beams by means of electro-mechanical analogies. An electric circuit model is analysed with various stages of complexity, and conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the co-resonant concept for sensors. Furthermore, this is validated by a comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data.
The presented work gives insight into the behaviour of co-resonantly coupled oscillating...