Articles | Volume 11, issue 1
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 11, 29–40, 2022

Special issue: Sensors and Measurement Science International SMSI 2021

J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 11, 29–40, 2022
Regular research article
20 Jan 2022
Regular research article | 20 Jan 2022

An in-hive soft sensor based on phase space features for Varroa infestation level estimation and treatment need detection

Andreas König

Related authors

Design of a CMOS memristor emulator-based, self-adaptive spiking analog-to-digital data conversion as the lowest level of a self-x hierarchy
Hamam Abd and Andreas König
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 11, 233–262,,, 2022
Short summary
Efficient transient testing procedure using a novel experience replay particle swarm optimizer for THD-based robust design and optimization of self-X sensory electronics in industry 4.0
Qummar Zaman, Senan Alraho, and Andreas König
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 10, 193–206,,, 2021
Short summary
Lab-on-Spoon – a 3-D integrated hand-held multi-sensor system for low-cost food quality, safety, and processing monitoring in assisted-living systems
A. König and K. Thongpull
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 63–75,,, 2015
Short summary

Related subject area

Applications: Environmental monitoring
A classification technique of civil objects by artificial neural networks using estimation of entropy on synthetic aperture radar images
Anton V. Kvasnov and Vyacheslav P. Shkodyrev
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 10, 127–134,,, 2021
Short summary
Measure particulate matter by yourself: data-quality monitoring in a citizen science project
Aboubakr Benabbas, Martin Geißelbrecht, Gabriel Martin Nikol, Lukas Mahr, Daniel Nähr, Simon Steuer, Gabriele Wiesemann, Thomas Müller, Daniela Nicklas, and Thomas Wieland
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 317–328,,, 2019
An autonomous flame ionization detector for emission monitoring
Jan Förster, Winfred Kuipers, Christian Lenz, Steffen Ziesche, and Franz Bechtold
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 67–73,,, 2019
Short summary
Gas sensors for climate research
Louisa Scholz, Alvaro Ortiz Perez, Benedikt Bierer, Jürgen Wöllenstein, and Stefan Palzer
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 535–541,,, 2018
Short summary
Metal ion binding and tolerance of bacteria cells in view of sensor applications
Jonas Jung, Anja Blüher, Mathias Lakatos, and Gianaurelio Cuniberti
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 433–441,,, 2018
Short summary

Cited articles

Adafruit: DHT11, DHT22 and AM2302 Sensors, Adafruit [code], available at:, last access: 19 November 2021. a, b
Arroyo, P., Meléndez,, F., Suárez,, J. I., Herrero, J. L., Rodríguez,, S., and Lozano, J.: Electronic Nose with Digital Gas Sensors Connected via Bluetooth to a Smartphone for Air Quality Measurements, Sensors, 20, 786,, 2020. a
AVIA Semiconductor: HX711 – 24-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) for Weigh Scales, available at: (last access: 19 November 2021), 2020. a
Ba̧k, B., Wilk, J., Artiemjew, P., Wilde, J., and Siuda, M.: Diagnosis of Varroosis Based on Bee Brood Samples Testing with Use of Semiconductor Gas Sensors, Sensors, 20, 4014,, 2020. a, b
Bayerische Landesanstalt für Weinbau und Gartenbau: Gemülldiagnose, available at:ülldiagnose_fzbienen2012.pdf, last access: 18 November 2021. a, b
Short summary
Bees play a major role in our ecosystem and the human food supply chain. Numerous threats, from pesticides to parasites, endanger bees and possibly cause bee colony collapse. The Varroa mite is one major parasite, and its timely detection and treatment is a key task for beekeepers. Contemporary sensors, electronics, and AI/PR allow vital parameters of bee hives to be monitored. Recent gas sensors (e.g., SGP30 or BME680) allow continuous in-hive parameter and Varroa population monitoring.