Articles | Volume 5, issue 1
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 9–16, 2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Sensor/IRS2 2015
Regular research article 15 Jan 2016
Regular research article | 15 Jan 2016
Shutter-less calibration of uncooled infrared cameras
A. Tempelhahn et al.
No articles found.
Helmut Budzier and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 10, 179–184,Short summary
In thermometry, the displayed temperature value of an object depends on the size of the object. This behaviour, the size-of-source effect, might be a major cause of measurement uncertainty in a thermoscene. The influence of diffraction and digitization can be described advantageously with the modulation transfer function. Especially with very small objects the displayed temperatures are too low. When imaging large objects, not only the edge areas are affected, but also the entire image.
Daniela Franke and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 10, 93–100,
Markus Stoehr, Gerald Gerlach, Thomas Härtling, and Stephan Schoenfelder
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 209–217,Short summary
Photoelasticity is considered a useful measurement tool for non-destructive and contactless determination of mechanical stresses or strains in the production of silicon wafers. In this work, a detailed derivation for the anisotropic stress-optic law is presented, and the corresponding stress-optical parameters are measured.
Tobias Ott and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 79–87,
Nikolai Gulnizkij and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 1–6,Short summary
We describe a mechanical model based on the beam theory for the development of a beam-like sensor switch with switching hysteresis for humidity sensing. The hydrogel swelling provides the mechanical energy to deflect the partly hydrogel-covered bending beam via the bimorph effect. From the model, we calculate the deflection of a beam-like sensor switch with and without a switching hysteresis. A beam-like sensor switch was manufactured, and the switching hysteresis was successfully demonstrated.
Margarita Guenther, Falko Altenkirch, Kai Ostermann, Gerhard Rödel, Ingo Tobehn-Steinhäuser, Steffen Herbst, Stefan Görlandt, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 215–222,Short summary
In this work, genetically modified cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 were confined in a four-chamber microfluidic cell, providing an optical monitoring of the cell behaviour and their supply with the nutrients. The measurements of the time-dependent fluorescence intensity were performed with different concentrations of the drug diclofenac, and the sensitivity of yeast cells to diclofenac was demonstrated. Cell viability was monitored by simultaneous impedance recording.
Jan Erfkamp, Margarita Guenther, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 219–226,Short summary
We describe a low-cost sensor for the detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. The reversible swelling of alcohol-sensitive hydrogels depends on the ethanol concentration. The resulting swelling pressure was detected via piezoresistive sensors. We have tested the swelling properties of the hydrogel (e.g. swelling kinetics, selectivity to other alcohols). Furthermore, the first sensor set-ups were tested and the reversibility of the hydrogel-based piezoresistive sensor was demonstrated.
Christoph Kroh, Roland Wuchrer, Margarita Günther, Thomas Härtling, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 51–55,Short summary
The inline monitoring of parameters in aqueous liquids is facing an increasing demand in many application areas. In this paper we report on an optical monitoring of the pH value in liquids by means of a sensitive hydrogel, which can be applied in the physiological range. Our results indicate a nearly linear dependency between pH value and hydrogel swelling. Furthermore, we show an improvement of the response time by a factor of 2 in comparison to other systems exploiting this kind of hydrogel.
Ulrike Schmidt, Carola Jorsch, Margarita Guenther, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 409–417,
Julia Körner, Christopher F. Reiche, Bernd Büchner, Thomas Mühl, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 245–259,Short summary
The presented work gives insight into the behaviour of co-resonantly coupled oscillating cantilever beams by means of electro-mechanical analogies. An electric circuit model is analysed with various stages of complexity, and conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the co-resonant concept for sensors. Furthermore, this is validated by a comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data.
Marisa Rio, Sharanya Bola, Richard H. W. Funk, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 237–243,Short summary
Endogeneous electric fields (EFs) affect a wide range of cellular functions such as migration, wound healing and regeneration. Similar results were observed when external EFs are applied. To date, the phenomenon of electrotaxis has been studied only in homogeneous EF environments. Here, we report on the construction and fabrication of a microfluidic biochip as well as first results for stimulation of cells with stationary, non-homogeneous EFs.
Carola Jorsch, Ulrike Schmidt, David Ulkoski, Carmen Scholz, Margarita Guenther, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 229–235,
Agnes Eydam, Gunnar Suchaneck, and Gerald Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 165–170,Short summary
Piezoelectric devices are characterized non-destructively to ensure their functionality. The material is heated by laser diodes. The resulting temperature changes lead to a pyroelectric current. Analytical and numerical finite element models describe the temperature distribution and the current in frequency and time domain. Modelling and experimental results are compared for piezoelectric plates and integrated sensors and actuators.
M. Windisch, K.-J. Eichhorn, J. Lienig, G. Gerlach, and L. Schulze
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 39–53,Short summary
Hydrogels are swellable polymers, which exhibit superior sensor properties. However, the exploitation of these properties for innovative measurement technology has been prevented by the lack of a manufacturing technique for thin hydogel films that suits industrial needs. We suggest a paradigm change from the current recipe-driven sensor manufacturing to a specification-driven one. Our contributions are optimized processes for a controllable film formation and thermal curing of the hydrogels.
T. Ott, M. Schossig, V. Norkus, and G. Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 313–319,
H. Budzier and G. Gerlach
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 187–197,
U. Marschner, G. Gerlach, E. Starke, and A. Lenk
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 3, 187–211,
Related subject area
Measurement systems: Sensor signal processing and electronicsSmart in-cylinder pressure sensor for closed-loop combustion controlEfficient transient testing procedure using a novel experience replay particle swarm optimizer for THD-based robust design and optimization of self-X sensory electronics in industry 4.0Intelligent fault detection of electrical assemblies using hierarchical convolutional networks for supporting automatic optical inspection systemsMeasurement uncertainty analysis of field-programmable gate-array-based, real-time signal processing for ultrasound flow imagingCompilation of training datasets for use of convolutional neural networks supporting automatic inspection processes in industry 4.0 based electronic manufacturingEmploying correlation for wireless components and device characterization in reverberation chambersImpedance model for a high-temperature ceramic humidity sensorNon-destructive testing of arbitrarily shaped refractive objects with millimetre-wave synthetic aperture radar imagingDetermining the dimension of subsurface defects by active infrared thermography – experimental researchInverse calculation of strain profiles from ETDR measurements using artificial neural networksAn ultra-low noise capacitance to voltage converter for sensor applications in 0.35 µm CMOSDevelopment of a non-contact torque transducer based on the laser speckle contrast methodDevelopment of a chopper charge amplifier for measuring the cavity pressure inside injection moulding tools and signal optimisation with a Kalman filterOptimized mixed-domain signal synthesis for broadband impedance spectroscopy measurements on lithium ion cells for automotive applicationsHigh-accuracy current measurement with low-cost shunts by means of dynamic error correctionA compact readout platform for spectral-optical sensorsHigh-speed camera-based measurement system for aeroacoustic investigationsA novel approach for detecting HMDSO poisoning of metal oxide gas sensors and improving their stability by temperature cycled operationMicro- and nanocoordinate measurements of micro-parts with 3-D tunnelling current probingAn electrical characterisation system for the real-time acquisition of multiple independent sensing parameters from organic thin film transistorsPiezoelectric transceiver matching for multiple frequenciesMetal oxide semiconductor gas sensor self-test using Fourier-based impedance spectroscopyWork area monitoring in dynamic environments using multiple auto-aligning 3-D sensorsPrincipal component analysis for fast and automated thermographic inspection of internal structures in sandwich partsNear-field interrogation of SAW resonators on rotating machineryMagnetic properties of CHAMP and their effects on in-orbit calibration
Dennis Vollberg, Peter Gibson, Günter Schultes, Hans-Werner Groh, and Thomas Heinze
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 11, 1–13,Short summary
We developed a smart in-cylinder pressure sensor for closed-loop combustion control. The sensor concept is based on a robust and reliable steel membrane equipped with highly strain-sensitive and temperature-stable thin films. The sensor system is complemented by a smart electronics allowing real-time data processing for calculation of different combustion parameters. The data are utilized to control the igniting timing of a spark plug for efficient operation of a combustion engine.
Qummar Zaman, Senan Alraho, and Andreas König
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 10, 193–206,Short summary
A novel experience replay particle swarm optimization algorithm is presented and successfully deployed to improve the optimization performance for reconfigurable analog integrated circuits of industry 4.0. An optimization approach is introduced that relied on THD-based indirect measurement method that varies from the traditional calibration approach. Instead, the proposed calibration methodology optimizes all characteristics of the reconfigurable amplifier at once.
Alida Ilse Maria Schwebig and Rainer Tutsch
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 363–374,Short summary
In order to further increase the performance of neural networks in the field of optical quality assurance of soldered joints, a hierarchical classifier can be used instead of a single network. The global expansion of the classifier enables the inspection task to be distributed over several subnetworks, which results in higher accuracy. Since the individual sub-models only concentrate on the identification of certain characteristics, categorical problems can be solved more effectively.
Richard Nauber, Lars Büttner, and Jürgen Czarske
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 227–238,Short summary
To improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes, such as continuous steel casting, lab-scale experiments with liquid metals are performed. We present an ultrasound Doppler signal process for multiplane, high-frame-rate flow imaging. We achieve real-time operations with an efficient implementation in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). We analyze the contributions to the uncertainty of the velocity measurement and relate it to its fundamental limit.
Alida Ilse Maria Schwebig and Rainer Tutsch
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 9, 167–178,Short summary
This article presents a classification concept based on deep learning as an additional optical test method for real-time visualization and analysis of electrical assemblies in the production environment. For this purpose, a neural convolutional network is used to identify the quality of the solder joint of surface-mounted chip components in the inspection images. The concept can be used to increase the detection performance of the solder joint inspection systems.
Christoph Cammin, Dmytro Krush, Ralf Heynicke, and Gerd Scholl
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 185–194,Short summary
Reverberation chambers are well-proven test environments for RF measurements. Typically, mean values are taken from the measurements to characterize the equipment under test. In the novel approach presented in this paper, the correlation of measured sample sequences is utilized to detect deviations, in particular of the radiation characteristics, from reference equipment.
Henrik Lensch, Manuel Bastuck, Tobias Baur, Andreas Schütze, and Tilman Sauerwald
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 8, 161–169,Short summary
The measurement of humidity in industrial applications is still an important research issue. Especially under rough operation conditions the current humidity sensor comes to its limitations. To this end, we are developing an integrated sensor system using a metal oxide sensor with impedance spectroscopy as multi-signal generation allowing the discrimination of humidity and reducing gases. The submitted paper focuses on the modeling of the humidity-dependent aspects of impedance.
Ingrid Ullmann, Julian Adametz, Daniel Oppelt, Andreas Benedikter, and Martin Vossiek
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 309–317,Short summary
Millimetre-wave radar is an emerging technique for non-destructive testing: it is less costly than X-rays and has no ionizing radiation. Compared to ultrasound it does not require the device under test to be immersed in water. This article presents methods for high-resolution millimetre-wave radar imaging without a priori knowledge of the object's shape. A polymer device with simulated material defects is examined, which could be depicted precisely.
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 7, 153–160,
Robin Höhne, Pawel Kostka, and Niels Modler
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 389–394,Short summary
This paper focuses on a novel carbon fibre sensor technology that exploits the low-cost and low-energy electrical reflectometry method for a spatially resolved strain measurement. The application of artificial neural networks for mapping the measured electrical signal to the existing strain profile is demonstrated. The potential and current limits are highlighted. The sensor is a promising part for the next generation of light-weight structures with operando health monitoring systems.
Alexander Utz, Christian Walk, Norbert Haas, Tatjana Fedtschenko, Alexander Stanitzki, Mir Mokhtari, Michael Görtz, Michael Kraft, and Rainer Kokozinski
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 285–301,
Alberto Garinei and Roberto Marsili
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 253–258,Short summary
When a torque measurement is required, torque transducers show many drawbacks during their use: the usual limits are the need for contact and the effects on shaft line parameters. A new approach is proposed in this work: a non-contact torque meter for a machine shaft has been developed, based on a laser speckle contrast method. It carries out torque measurements evaluating the torsional displacement between two distinct sections of the shaft, through the monitoring of their roughness.
Manuel Schneider, Alexander Jahn, Norbert Greifzu, and Norbert Fränzel
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 199–210,Short summary
This article describes a chopper amplifier which has been specially developed for piezoelectric pressure sensors. It is shown that the amplifier provides good results for pressure measurement in injection moulds. A special feature of this work is the signal optimisation through the use of a Kalman filter.
Peter Haußmann and Joachim Melbert
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 6, 65–76,Short summary
A method to generate broadband waveforms with low peak-to-peak amplitude based on distinct frequency domain profiles is presented, which includes random phase variation and numerical optimization. The peak-to-peak amplitude can be reduced by 71 % compared to zero-phase pulses with equal frequency domain characteristics. Used as excitation signals for impedance spectroscopy, the waveforms yield good results at significantly reduced measurement duration compared to established measurement methods.
Patrick Weßkamp and Joachim Melbert
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 389–400,Short summary
Measurement of electrical current is important for many scientific and industrial applications. Often shunt resistors are used. However, thermal effects due to self-heating and ambient temperature variation limit the achievable accuracy. In this work, a dynamic compensation method is presented which takes static and dynamic temperature drift effects into account. It significantly reduces the remaining measurement errors. The approach can also be used to improve existing measurement systems.
Roland Wuchrer, Sabrina Amrehn, Luhao Liu, Thorsten Wagner, and Thomas Härtling
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 157–163,Short summary
The continuous monitoring of industrial and environmental processes is becoming an increasingly important aspect with both economic and societal impact. To realize this task, spectral-optical sensors with their outstanding properties in terms of sensitivity and reliability are a potential solution. However, for exploiting these sensors in a cost- and energy-efficient sensing system, a miniaturized readout unit is needed. Here we present a card-size, inexpensive, and robust readout electronics.
Johannes Gürtler, Daniel Haufe, Anita Schulz, Friedrich Bake, Lars Enghardt, Jürgen Czarske, and Andreas Fischer
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 5, 125–136,Short summary
The interaction of sound and flow enables an efficient noise damping. Understanding this aeroacoustic damping phenomenon requires simultaneous measurement of flow and sound fields. Using a high-speed CMOS camera, two-component flow velocity measurements are performed in a three-dimensional region of interest. The sensor system can simultaneously capture sound and turbulent flow velocity oscillations. The presented measurements reveal that the sound energy is transferred into flow energy.
M. Schüler, T. Sauerwald, and A. Schütze
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 305–311,Short summary
We study the effect of HMDSO vapor on an SnO2-based gas sensor in temperature cycled operation (TCO). The poisoning can be quantified at early stages with a resolution of ±85 ppm*min using TCO. This approach provides a simple method for early detection of HMDSO poisoning. The stability of gas discrimination by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) can be improved using normalization, which in turn facilitates a more accurate determination of the poisoning state by hierarchical LDA discrimination.
A. Schuler, T. Hausotte, and Z. Sun
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 199–208,Short summary
Measurement tasks of modern micro- and nanometrology with decreasing structure sizes and rising aspect ratios require nanometre-resolving 3-D capable sensors. A 3-D probing system based on electrical interaction is presented which is operated on a nanopositioning system NMM-1. New 3-D measurement procedures for the probing system as well as for micrometrology measurement tasks in general are shown.
A. Dragoneas, L. Hague, and M. Grell
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 169–177,
A. Ens and L. M. Reindl
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 4, 9–16,
M. Schüler, T. Sauerwald, and A. Schütze
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 3, 213–221,
Y. Wang, D. Ewert, T. Meisen, D. Schilberg, and S. Jeschke
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 3, 113–120,
D. Griefahn, J. Wollnack, and W. Hintze
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 3, 105–111,
J.-M. Boccard, P. Katus, R. Renevier, L. M. Reindl, and J.-M. Friedt
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 2, 147–156,
H. Lühr, F. Yin, and R. Bock
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 2, 9–17,
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Infrared cameras based on microbolometer focal plane arrays (FPAs) are the most widely used cameras in thermography. For acceptable measurement uncertainty values, the disturbing influences of changing ambient temperature have to be considered. We propose a TEC-less and shutter-less correction approach based on additional temperature measurements inside the IR camera. The effects on the pixel responsivity and offset voltage are considered separately.
Infrared cameras based on microbolometer focal plane arrays (FPAs) are the most widely used...